ed

Suffix -ed (past-tense verbs)

The "ed" ending can sound like /t/, /Id/, or /d/.

• -ed /t/: asked, backed, smacked, cracked, quacked, thanked, raked, snaked, staked, talked, pecked, checked, kicked, milked, picked, tricked, blinked, biked, liked, hiked, locked, knocked, poked, smoked, choked, cooked, looked, tucked, napped, capped, clapped, flapped, trapped, scrapped, strapped, stamped, taped, draped, shaped, helped, clipped, dipped, ripped, zipped, flipped, tripped, griped, wiped, typed, hopped, stopped, dropped, chomped, coped, hoped, roped, sloped, bumped, sniffed, puffed, passed, guessed, dressed, missed, processed, unprocessed, unfocused, bussed, based, chased, faced, paced, placed, braced, traced, iced, priced, sliced, axed, taxed, fixed, boxed, clashed, fished, wished, polished, rushed, brushed, itched, inched, pinched, crunched

• -ed /Id/: acted, batted, matted, chanted, planted, slanted, granted, dated, hated, mated, rated, stated, skated, crated, lasted, blasted, drafted, petted, melted, rested, tempted, protected, fitted, gifted, lifted, shifted, drifted, tilted, listed, quilted, hinted, printed, squinted, dotted, jotted, knotted, plotted, spotted, trotted, prompted, noted, toted, voted, quoted, jutted, busted, hunted, grunted, trusted, sculpted, muted, added, banded, handed, landed, sanded, stranded, faded, jaded, waded, shaded, graded, ended, mended, tended, intended, unintended, shredded, unneeded, ceded, kidded, skidded, gilded, sided, nodded, plodded, prodded, coded, budded, funded

• -ed /d/: nabbed, blabbed, grabbed, robbed, throbbed, robed, probed, cubed, bagged, sagged, snagged, bragged, dragged, jogged, tugged, slugged, caged, raged, staged, filed, smiled, ruled, doled, holed, poled, jammed, rammed, slammed, crammed, scrammed, named, tamed, shamed, blamed, framed, schemed, timed, chimed, rhymed, bombed, domed, hummed, fumed, canned, fanned, planned, scanned, banged, dined, fined, lined, boned, longed, cloned, phoned, toned, tuned, phrased, closed, shaved, craved, dazed, glazed, carved, sized, prized, dozed, buzzed, unaltered


(1) 無聲字尾 -k, -p, -gh, -f, -s, -ce, -x, -sh, -ch; ed 唸 /t/:如 walked, picked, helped, hopped, hoped, laughed, pressed, faxed, mixed, washed, watched, reached
(2) 尾音為 無聲/t/ 或 有聲/d/ ; ed 唸 /Id/:如 wanted, ended
(3) 其它有聲字尾; ed 唸 /d/:如 opened, smiled